Peter Lorenz German smaller fonts Simulation und Animation

1. Introduction into Modeling, Simulation and Animation

The three components in the headline of this chapter are Modeling, Simulation and Animation. They are connected, partly overlapping fields, which have one thing in common: They deal with the creation and the use of replacements for real (original) objects. The replacements are called models. Simulation and Animation models, which are the main subject of the lecture Simulation and Animation, are special classes of models.

1.1 Models and Modeling

This chapter intends to provide a general idea of the method of modeling. The word model is commonly used in at least eight different meanings. We will choose one of these for future use:

A model of an object or system (the original) is a similar object or system, which can be used to solve problems, which cannot (as easily) be solved with the original.

The general properties of models form the basis of various classifications. Now we can discuss goals and reasons in favour of and against the use of models. The use of models is connected with analogy conclusions. Therefore we have to look at the general structure of these conclusions. Finally we will put our focus on a special class of models, the simulation models. These are dynamic models of processes or sequences of events.

1.2. Simulation

Today simulation is often regarded as a special kind of modeling. In this sense simulation models are models with certain characteristics.

A simulation model or simulator is an abstract dynamic model, which is usually a program. During the execution of this simulation program, a computer model, the simulation clock or simulation time is running and changes of states are mapped in the same order like the time goes forward and processes and events occur in the original.
Simulation is the development and use of simulation models.

We will discuss under what conditions simulation is a suitable and efficient method to solve problems. The concept of simulation time will be introduced and the time step method will be compared to the discrete event method. Both methods will be explained with the help of simple examples. Various tools can be used for simulation. They are called simulation systems and will be characterized and classified.

1.3. Animation

Animation means creating the appearance of movement by displaying a succession of fast changing images. The foundations of animation go back as far as 150 years. The first heydays of animation or the animation technique is marked by the animated cartoon movies of the 1920s. Today computer aided or generated animation is a major component of many films. From 1996 films have been made (1996 Toy Story) which do without any real shootings whatsoever, where every picture has been generated by the computer. It is however not this working field of animation, which is occasionally called studio animation, that we will focus on. We will rather deal with the system animation.

System animation deals with the synthetic computer generated visualization of modelled processes.

It has goals that differ from those of simulation and will be described here. System animation has been established as a component of the simulation technique since the seventies. Today in most cases simulation is only accepted, if it can present the modelled systems and their processes with the help of animation. That is why there are a number of animation systems of different quality either as components of simulators or as standalone programs. We will propose and discuss general demands on these animation systems. Some examples will be shortly introduced.

1.4. S&A at Magdeburg University

Simulation and Animation (S&A) has been used and developed at Magdeburg University since the technical equipment, the computers, was available. In this chapter we will have a look at the history of S&A at Magdeburg University.

1. Introduction to Modeling, Simulation and Animation
1.1.Models and Modeling
1.4.History of S&A at the University of Magdeburg
Global Outline
1.Introduction to Modeling, Simulation and Animation.
2.Proof Animation™.
3.GPSS/H as a Programming language.
4.GPSS/H Queueing Models.
5.GPSS/H Controling Concepts.
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