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[Knu87]  Digital Halftones by Dot Diffusion

Knuth:1987:DHD (Article)
Author(s)Knuth D.
Title« Digital Halftones by Dot Diffusion »
JournalACM Transactions on Graphics
Volume6
Number4
Page(s)245--273
Year1987

Abstract
This paper describes a technique for approximating real-valued pixels by two-valued pixels. The new method, called dot diffusion, appears to avoid some deficiencies of other commonly used techniques. It requires approximately the same total number of arithmetic operations as the Floyd-Steinberg method of adaptive grayscale, and it is well suited to parallel computation; but it requires more buffers and more complex program logic than other methods when implemented sequentially. A "smooth" variant of the method may prove to be useful in high-resolution printing.

BibTeX code
@article{Knuth:1987:DHD,
  optcitations = {Floyd:1975:AAS},
  number = {4},
  optissn = {0730-0301},
  optreview = {ACM CR 8808-0633},
  author = {Donald E. Knuth},
  localfile = {papers/Knuth.1987.DHD.pdf},
  optkeywords = {algorithms; bilevel display; constrained average; edge
                 enhancement; error diffusion; facsimiles; Floyd-Steinberg
                 method; minimized average error; Mona Lisa; ordered dither;
                 parallel computing; printing},
  journal = j-TOG,
  optmonth = oct,
  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/35039.35040},
  volume = {6},
  optsubject = {{\bf I.3.3}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                Picture/Image Generation, Display algorithms. {\bf I.4.1}:
                Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Digitization,
                Quantization. {\bf I.4.3}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE
                PROCESSING, Enhancement, Grayscale manipulation.},
  optstatus = {OK},
  title = {{D}igital {H}alftones by {D}ot {D}iffusion},
  abstract = {This paper describes a technique for approximating real-valued
              pixels by two-valued pixels. The new method, called dot diffusion,
              appears to avoid some deficiencies of other commonly used
              techniques. It requires approximately the same total number of
              arithmetic operations as the Floyd-Steinberg method of adaptive
              grayscale, and it is well suited to parallel computation; but it
              requires more buffers and more complex program logic than other
              methods when implemented sequentially. A "smooth" variant of the
              method may prove to be useful in high-resolution printing.},
  year = {1987},
  pages = {245--273},
}

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